A IS FOR AGRICULTURE, ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE, & ART
Indonesia has many ARCHAEOLOGY sites. The Gunung Padang Megalithic Site was dated 6,500 years BP (before present) at 3–4 metres below the surface, 12,500 years at 8 to 10 metres below the surface, and the artifacts at the surface date to about 4,800 years BP. The remains of Homo floresiensis, an individual that would have stood about 3.5 feet in height were discovered in 2003 at Liang Bua on the island of Flores. Bali was inhabited in Paleolithic times (1 my BCE to 200.000 BCE) and ancient tools such as hand axes were found in Sembiran and Trunyan villages. The cave art on the island of Sulawesi is between 35,000 and 40,000 years old. Bones and charcoal that date back 35,000 years have been found in Kalimantan.
The ARCHITECTURE of Indonesia has been influenced by invaders, colonizers, missionaries, merchants, and traders. Traditional houses and settlements of the several hundreds ethnic groups are extremely varied. Religious architecture varies from mosques, to temples, to churches. The sultans and other rulers built palaces. The earliest surviving Hindu temples in Java are at the Dieng Plateau. With the arrival of Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries masonry was used for much of the construction. Previously timber and its by-products had been almost exclusively used. At the end of the 19th century, great changes were happening across Indonesia. Modern buildings required for such development appeared in great numbers. Urban construction booms have continued in the 21st century and are shaping skylines in Indonesian cities.
The arts of Indonesia are many, especially Indonesian paintings which are unique works of ART. Each region and each ethnic groups has its own distinct styles of arts and crafts. Art in Indonesia is not only based on folklore as many were developed in the courts of former kingdoms where they are part of religious ceremonies. Indonesian Batik is the most developed in terms of pattern, technique, and the quality of workmanship and in 2009 UNESCO designated it as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Other crafts include silver work, hand weaving, and woodcarving. Islam has had a strong influence on the arts. In its most traditional forms it excludes images of humans and animals and instead highlights Islamic-style geometric decorations and Arabic calligraphy. Javanese and Balinese shadow puppet theater shows are known as ‘Wayang Kulit’. The earliest record confirming the existence of shadow theater in Java dates back to 907. The Bali Arts Festival is the largest annual celebration of art and culture in Indonesia, with a full month (between June-July) of daily performances, arts exhibitions, dances, food and other cultural offerings.
Indonesia has a wide variety of BIRDS and the Javan Hawk Eagle is the National Bird. The country has more endemic birds than any other country. A considerable number of migratory birds winter in the country. Several species are endangered. Indonesia has many beautiful birds. The Greater Bird of Paradise is considered to be one of the most beautiful birds in the world. The Bali Bird Park has more than 5,000 birds representing more than 200 species in an enclosed aviary. The park has been landscaped to create natural habitats including 3 lakes with various species of water birds. The park has exhibits and special programs. The country has many Birding Sites.
Indonesia has several
Suramadu Bridge is the longest bridge in the country. The
Pasupati Bridge and Overpass connects the north and east of Bandung. The bridge and overpass are known for their colorful display, particularly at night. The
Barelang Bridge is a chain of 6 bridges of various types that connect the islands of Batam, Rempang, and Galang. Travelling from the first bridge to the last is about 31 miles. The
Merah Putih Bridge goes over Ambon Bay in Ambon Island. In 2001, the
COMMUNICATIONS in Indonesia has a complex history due to the need to reach an extended archipelago of over 17,500 islands. The Ministry of Communications and Informatics for responsible for communication and information in Indonesia. The country has several newspapers and both national and regional. Telkom Indonesia is the business unit mainly in fixed line telephony, internet, and data communications. The company traces its roots to an establishment of the first electromagnetic telegraph service in Indonesia on October 23, 1856. Telephone numbers in Indonesia have different systems for land lines and mobile phones: land lines use area codes, while mobile phones do not. The country has many radio stations and television stations. There are webcams located throughout the country.
The Rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia, the ISO 4217 currency code for the Indonesian rupiah is IDR. The name "rupiah" is derived from the Hindustani word rupiyaa ultimately from Sanskrit rupya (wrought silver). The history of the rupee goes back to Ancient India circa 3rd century BC. Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ('silver' in Indonesian) in referring to rupiah. The largest Indonesian banknote is worth approximately US$7.71. There are presently two series of coins in circulation: aluminium, bronze and nickel coins dated between 1991 and 2010. These come in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 rupiah.
There is some evidence that DINOSAURS lived in Indonesia. The Coelacanth was thought to have gone extinct with the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. However, in September 1997 one was found in a marked in Sulaweisi and others have been found in the waters off Sulawesi. Ichthyosaur fossils were found in the mud volcanoes in Kai Island. Mesozoic macro fossils were studied in Misool Island.
The Indonesian education system is 4th largest in the world EDUCATION system is the 4th largest in the world and falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Religious Affairs . In Indonesia, all citizens must undertake 9 years of compulsory education which consists of 6 years at elementary level and 3 in secondary level. Private school and International schools are on the rise. Some refer to themselves as "national plus schools" which means that their curriculum to exceeds requirements set by the Ministry of Education. Students with disabilities/special needs may be enrolled in a separate school. .Primary and middle school is free, while in high school, there is small fees. The completion rate for Indonesian primary schools is high. Home schooling is popular.
Being a diverse country of origins and religions, Indonesia has a wide variety of EVENTS. Some of the Festivals include the Indonesian Film Festival, the Bali Kite Festival, the Karapan Sapi a traditional bull racing festival, the Jogja Java Carnival, and the Jember Fashion Carnaval. The biggest national festival is Independence day on 17th of August.
The Flag of Indonesia is a bicolour with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom). It was introduced and hoisted at the Indonesian Independence declaration ceremony on 17 August 1945. The flag is identical to the historical flag of Alsace (former region of France), the flag of Hesse (a German state), and the flag of Monaco. The flag is similar to the flag of Poland and the flag of Singapore, which has a half crescent and 5 stars in the top red band. The Naval Jack is a simple flag with 9 alternating red and white stripes and the civilian jack has 11. The National Emblem of Indonesia was adopted on 11 February 1950 and is called Garuda Pancasila. The main part is the Garuda, mythical bird, with a heraldic shield on its chest and a scroll gripped by its legs. The 5 emblems represent the 5 principles of Indonesia's national ideology. The Garuda claws gripping a white ribbon scroll is inscribed with the national motto which can be loosely translated as "Unity in Diversity".
Rice, the staple FOOD in Indonesia, dates back as early as 2300 B.C. Trade with the China around 2000 B.C. brought /a> Chinese cuisine. By 100 A.D., food had been brought over from India by traders and Hindu missionaries brought Indian cuisine. Around the 1400s, Muslims from the Middle East began incorporating goat and lamb dishes into the Indonesian diet. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to significantly affect Indonesian food with Portuguese cuisine. Several vegetables were brought to the islands about a century later by the Dutch East Indies Company. In the 16th century, Spain influenced food in Indonesia with Spanish cuisine. Food in Indonesia varies greatly by region. The food in Sumatra often has Middle Eastern and Indian influences while Javanese food has a hint of Chinese influence. The food of Eastern Indonesia is similar to that of the Pacific Islands. Indonesia has over 5,000 traditional recipes, with 30 of them considered the most important. Three of the most popular dishes in Indonesia are on the list of 'World's 50 Most Delicious Foods. Rendang, a spicy meat dish, is number 1, nasi goreng(fried rice) is number 2, Satay, a dish of seasoned, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce, is number 14. The country has Warungs, a type of small family-owned restaurant or café. The official national dish of Indonesia is Tumpeng, a cone-shaped rice dish like mountain with its side dishes.
Most FORTS in Indonesia were built in the era of colonial power. Fort Belgica is a 17th-century fort in Banda Neira and acted as a fortification system for the islands of Banda where during that time was the only place in the world where nutmeg was produced. Fort Tolukko was one of the colonial forts built to control the trade in clove spices. Fort Oranje is the largest fort in Ternate Island. Despite frequent earthquakes in the walls of the fort are still in good condition. A part of the fort has been made into a park. Fort Kalamata was first built in 1540 by the Portuguese. It was rebuilt in 1610 by the Dutch and is open to the public. Fort Marlborough is an English fort in Sumatra built between 1713-1719. In 1977, the fort was handed over to the Department of Education and Culture to be restored and converted into a heritage site. Fort Rotterdam is a 17th-century Dutch fort on the island of Sulawesi. Inside the fort are 13 buildings. Eleven of them are original buildings and most are still good in condition. At the very center of the fort is a church building.
Indonesia has GHOST TOWNS. ghost villages in the shadow of Mount Sinabung were abandoned after layers of volcanic ash made them uninhabitable. Benteng Pendem is an abandoned Dutch fortress in Central Java. It is said to be haunted, and has often used been used as a filming location for tests of bravery; individuals are left alone, without lights, in a room for an hour. The country has haunted places and abandoned places.
A map of Indonesia shows that the country is 5 degrees north longitude and 120° degrees east latitude . The central point in the country is a spot in the Makassar Strait about 200 km southeast of the city of Balikpapan in East Kalimantan and about 100 km due west of Aoni in West Sulawesi. The highest point is the peak of PuncakJaya on the island of Papua and the lowest point is sea level. The country shares borders with Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea, and East Timor. The topography of Indonesia ranges from sea level to 5,000 feet. Geocaches and Geocaching is popular.
The HISTORY of Indonesia dates back 2 million to 500,000 years ago when Java Man lived there. Austronesian people arrived around 2000 BCE. From the 7th century CE, the Chola naval kingdom flourished. During the 8th and 10th centuries, the Medang Kingdom flourished. During the 11th century, the Kingdom of Kahuripan was established and later divided into 2 kingdoms, Janggala and Kadiri. During the 1200’s-1300’s several kingdoms were established including the kingdom of Ternate, the kingdom of Majapahit, and the kingdom of Malayupura. In 1602, the Dutch East India Company was formed and began building an empire but went bankrupt and was dissolved in 1800. The islands were then known as the Dutch East Indies until Indonesia's independence 149 years later. During World War II (1942-1945), Japan occupied the islands. In 1949 Indonesia gained independence from the Dutch. In 1999. the first fully free parliamentary elections since 1955 took place.
The country celebrates public HOLIDAYS and other special days. Since a large percentage of people are Muslim Ramadan is widely celebrated. Chinese New Year is February 8 and became a national holiday in 2002. Buddha's birthday, also known as Waisak is December 12. Indonesian National Armed Forces Day is celebrated on October 5, the day of foundation of the People's Security Army. Earth Day is celebrated on October 22. Father's Day is November 12 and was officially declared in 2006. Mother's Dayis December 22 and was officially declared in 1959. Despite having a small population who are Christian, Christmas is still popular and a national holiday in December. Nyepi, (“Day of Silence>, is the day of the Balinese New Year and changes every year. The country has several different calendars.
Indonesia has a variety of INSECTS including dragonflies and butterflies. There are also praying mantis and dangerous scorpions. It is estimated that approximately 10,000 species of moths are found in Indonesia. Honey Bee cultivation in Indonesia began in 1841 Ninety-eight new species of beetles have been found in Indonesia.
Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. The exact number of ISLANDS islands varies among definitions and sources. There are 8,844 islands that have been named according to estimates made by the government of Indonesia, with 922 of those permanently inhabited. The major islands include Borneo, the 3rd largest island in the world, Sumatra, the 6th largest, Sulawesi the 11th largest, and Java, the most populous island in the world. The Maluku Islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg, mace, and cloves that were originally exclusively found there.
The JUDICIARY of Indonesia includes the Supreme Court of Indonesia and the Constitutional Court of Indonesia together with public courts, religious courts, administrative courts and military courts. The Supreme Court is highest court and the final court of appeal for criminal and civil verdicts. Religious courts are for Muslim citizens to resolve matters such as marriage, inheritance, and property donated for religious purposes. Military courts deal with cases involving members of the Armed Forces.
Many aspects of life in Indonesia focus on KIDS. There are many activities to help kids learn about Indonesia and multicultural and geography lessons. There are many things to do with kids in Indonesia. A day in the life of a kid in Indonesia. National Children's Day is celebrated on July 23.
Indonesian is the official LANGUAGE of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Because of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in one or more of the 700 indigenous local languages. Most formal education, and nearly all national mass media, governance, administration, judiciary,and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian. The Indonesian name for the language is Bahasa Indonesia (literally "the language of Indonesia") or sometimes simplified as Bahasa.
Indonesia has a variety of LIBRARIES including public libraries, private renting libraries, and free informal lending libraries or community libraries, also called reading gardens. The first library in Indonesia was the Batavian Kerkeraad, which was established in 1624 and only available to clergy. The Dutch colonial government gradually opened more libraries, The National Library in Salemba, Jakarta, serves primarily as a humanities library alongside several others holding national responsibilities for science and agriculture. The earliest collections originated from the library of the National Museum opened in 1868. The Microlibrary in Bandung has a ventilated facade made from used ice cream tubs and is the first in a series of small libraries planned for Indonesia to promote interest in reading and make more books available. Rainbow Reading Gardens brings the world to rural and remote villages in eastern Indonesia. Berobak Batja is a mobile library that is placed in public spaces and can be accessed by anyone for free.
Indonesia has many LIGHTHOUSES. Jaga Utara, North Watcher, Noord Wachter (former) / Pulau Sebir is the oldest surviving Dutch lighthouse. The Cikoneng lighthouse was built in the 19th century to replace the earlier lighthouse which was completely destroyed by the tsunami caused by the 1883 eruption of Krakatau. A lighthouse is an important aspect to the mariner.
Indonesia has many MOUNTAINS and and most are volcanoes - active or dormant. Puncak Jaya is the tallest mountain. The country also has mountain ranges. Sumatra is dominated by a mountain range called Bukit Barisan ("a row of hills") and spans nearly 1,100 mi from the north to the south. Mountain climbing is a popular activity.
Indonesia has many MUSEUMS and cultural institutions. Jakarta has the most museums. Most museums in Sumatra specialize in cultural heritage such as textiles and other traditional artifacts. Ambon was the site of the first recorded museum in Indonesia, a botanical museum built by Georg Eberhard Rumphius in 1662. Nothing remains of it except books written by him which are now in the National Museum of Indonesia in Jakarta. Popularly known as Elephant Building after the elephant statue in its forecourt. Museums in the Moluccas specialize in artifacts from the earlier Sultanates in the Moluccas. The existing sultan's palace was built in 1796 and restored in a semi-colonial style and is now partly a museum as well the sultan's home. The museum exhibits the genealogy of the Ternatean royal family from 1257, a collection of Portuguese and Dutch helmets, swords and armor, and memorabilia from the previous sultans.
Indonesia has Planetariums & OBSERVATORIES. The Bosscha Observatory is the oldest observatory in the country. The Jakarta Planetatium and Observatory is a public planetarium and an observatory, part of the Taman Ismail Marzuki art and science complex in Jakarta. The planetarium is the oldest of the three planetaria in Indonesia. It features an exhibition hall for astronomy and nine movies, each with a duration of 60 minutes. The second planetarium is located in Surabaya, East Java. The third planetarium is located in Kutai, East Kalimantan. The country has astronomy clubs. The 2009 superbolide was an atmospheric fireball blast over Indonesia near the coastal city of Bone in South Sulawesi.
Indonesia is the 4th largest country in the world and has a population of about 250 million PEOPLE. The country is ethnically diverse with around 300 distinctive native ethnic groups and over 740 different languages and dialects. Indonesian is the official and the national language of the country. However, English is also used for important public places such as tourist attractions and airports. Bilingual signs can be found in tourist areas. Many well known people have called the country their home.
Indonesia has many PORTS. The Port of TanjungPriok is the busiest and most advanced port in the country. At one time, Sunda Kelapa Harbor was a bustling center of trade and one of the archipelago’s main local ports. Today, it serves small, traditional wooden boats traveling between Jakarta and the country’s far-flung regions.
Indonesia has a great variety of REPTILES and amphibians and some are native to the country. The country has approximately 450 species of snakes and some are poisonous. There are also geckos, skinks, and lizards. The Komodo Dragon, the largest lizard in the world lives, on Komodo Island. Indonesia is home to 6 out of 7 of the world's turtle species. and there are several species of frogs.
Indonesia has many RIVERS. Kalimantan has the largest rivers including the Mahakam and the Baritoa.. The largest rivers on Sumatra drain from west to east into the Strait of Malacca. Passenger ferries and small riverboats provide services along the main rivers. Papua has more than 30 major rivers draining to the north and south from the Maoke Mountains. The main rivers of Java include the Manuk and the Serayu. The Solor,the longest river in Java. The Kapuas River in the Indonesian part of Borneo island is at the geographic center of Maritime Southeast Asia. It is the longest river in the country and one of the longest island rivers in the world.
Indonisia has participation and spectator SPORTS. Popular sports include badminton, football, and the native Indonesian martial art Pencak Silat. Indonesia has won gold medals in badminton in many Olympic Games. The country participates in the Thomas Cup, the Uber Cup, and the Sudirman Cup Badminton championships. The country participate in regional multi-events sport including the Asian Games and the Southeast Asian Games. Sporting events are organised by the Indonesian National Sport Committee. The organisation, along with the Indonesian government, made September 9 National Sports Day. Indonesia hosts National Sports Week every 4 years. The Gelora Bung Karno Stadium in Jakarta is one of the largest stadiums in the world.
Indonesia has all forms of TRANSPORTATION. Indonesians drive on the left and road transport is the main means of travel. All motorized vehicles including motorcycles are required to have registration plates displayed in front and back of vehicle. Road signs are in Indonesian and are similar to those used in other countries. The railway system has 4 unconnected networks in Java and Sumatra primarily dedicated to transport bulk commodities and long-distance passenger traffic. The country has many airports. The Jakarta's Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
Indonesia has many species of TREES. The Nipa Palm is one of the most prominent native trees. Sulawesi has several types of forests. The Magnolia sulawesiana is a large evergreen tree that grows there. The forests of Sumatra are home to some of the rarest animals and plant species in the world. Borneo has several forests including Montane Forests and one of the oldest rain forests in the world. The Forbidden Forest of the Upper Cibeet River is a sacred wooded area in Java.
Indonesia had many UNESCO World Heritage sites. The newest site is the Borobudur Temple Compounds that consists of 3 Buddhist temples in Central Java, Borobudur, and Mendut, and Pawon that were probably built during the 8th–9th centuries. In 1999, Lorentz National Park was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is the only protected area in the world to incorporate a continuous, intact transect from snowcap to tropical marine environment, including extensive lowland wetlands. In 1991, Ujung Kulon National Park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat. The country has several Biosphere Reserves and Protected Areas.
Indonesia had about 400 VOLCANOES and about 150 are active. The most active volcanoes are Mount Kelud and Mount Merapi on Java island. The country sits between the most active seismic regions in the world, the Pacific Ring of Fire and the Alpide belt. Sandwiched between such seismicity has meant the islands experience some of the strongest earthquakes and most powerful volcanic eruptions in the world. The subduction of the Indian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate formed the volcanic arc in western Indonesia. In 2014 Mount Gamalama erupted. In 2016, Mount Mount Sinabung and Mount Mount Rinjani erupted. In January 2017, Mount Sinabung continued into its 4th year of eruptions. The eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 was one of the deadliest and most destructive volcanic eruptions in recorded history. Lake Toba is the largest volcanic lake in the world. Mount Agung Volcano spewed ash and stream on the Indonesian island of Bali in November 2017, its first eruption since 1963.
The WEATHER in Indonesia can be split into two seasons - wet and dry. In most regions, the dry season spans from May to September, with the rains falling between October and April. There are some regional exceptions. In Sumatra it rains from October to January in the north, and November to February in the south. Sulawesi, with its unusual shape, also experiences slightly different weather patterns and rainfall can be expected in the northern regions of the island during June and July. Sulawesi, with its unusual shape, also experiences slightly different weather patterns and rainfall can be expected in the northern regions of the island during June and July. The combination of high population density and high levels of biodiversity makes Indonesia one of the most vulnerable countries to the impacts of climate change. Click HERE to see the current weather in Indonesia.
Indonesia has a variety of WILDLIFE. Many are endemic to the country and many are endangered. There are 3 animals that are Indonesian faunal emblems: the Komodo Dragon, the Javan hawk-eagle, and the Asian arowana. There are also faunal emblems that represent each respective provinces of Indonesia. There are 10 Rare Animals that can only be found in Indonesia. Cikananga Wildlife Center is a protection and preservation wildlife center for Indonesian protected animals providing a home for many species that need help.
Indonesia has several ZOOS. Batu Secret Zoo, Malang has animal feeding times, elephant attractions, and water activities. Pematang Siantar Zoo, North Sumatra has tropical animals and local ones including oranggutans, birds, tigers, and lions. Gembira Loka Zoo, Yogyakarta has a botanical garden, orchid nursery, artificial lake, children's park, numerous bridges across the Gajahwong River, and a collection of approximately 470 animals including Komodo dragons, Orang-utans, Gibbons, and a Hippopotamus.